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Nursing Home Nutrition and Food Services Regulations for Nursing Homes

Nursing Home Nutrition and Food Services Requirements

Nursing Home Nutrition and Food Services Requirements

Nutrition and Food Services Federal Nursing Home Regulations

Pursuant to federal regulation 42 CFR § 483.60, food and nutrition services. The facility must provide each resident with a nourishing, palatable, well-balanced diet that meets his or her daily nutritional and special dietary needs, taking into consideration the preferences of each resident.

(a) Staffing. The facility must employ sufficient staff with the appropriate competencies and skills sets to carry out the functions of the food and nutrition service, taking into consideration resident assessments, individual plans of care and the number, acuity and diagnoses of the facility’s resident population in accordance with the facility assessment required at §483.70(e). This includes:

(1) A qualified dietitian or other clinically qualified nutrition professional either full-time, part-time, or on a consultant basis. A qualified dietitian or other clinically qualified nutrition professional is one who—

(i) Holds a bachelor’s or higher degree granted by a regionally accredited college or university in the United States (or an equivalent foreign degree) with completion of the academic requirements of a program in nutrition or dietetics accredited by an appropriate national accreditation organization recognized for this purpose.

(ii) Has completed at least 900 hours of supervised dietetics practice under the supervision of a registered dietitian or nutrition professional.

(iii) Is licensed or certified as a dietitian or nutrition professional by the State in which the services are performed. In a state that does not provide for licensure or certification, the individual will be deemed to have met this requirement if he or she is recognized as a “registered dietitian” by the Commission on Dietetic Registration or its successor organization, or meets the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section.

(iv) For dietitians hired or contracted with prior to November 28, 2016, meets these requirements no later than 5 years after November 28, 2016 or as required by state law.

(2) If a qualified dietitian or other clinically qualified nutrition professional is not employed full-time, the facility must designate a person to serve as the director of food and nutrition services who—

(i) For designations prior to November 28, 2016, meets the following requirements no later than 5 years after November 28, 2016, or no later than 1 year after November 28, 2016 for designations after November 28, 2016, is:

(A) A certified dietary manager; or

(B) A certified food service manager, or

(C) Has similar national certification for food service management and safety from a national certifying body; or

(D) Has an associate’s or higher degree in food service management or in hospitality, if the course study includes food service or restaurant management, from an accredited institution of higher learning; and

(ii) In States that have established standards for food service managers or dietary managers, meets State requirements for food service managers or dietary managers, and

(iii) Receives frequently scheduled consultations from a qualified dietitian or other clinically qualified nutrition professional.

(3) Support staff. The facility must provide sufficient support personnel to safely and effectively carry out the functions of the food and nutrition service.

(b) A member of the Food and Nutrition Services staff must participate on the interdisciplinary team as required in §483.21(b)(2)(ii).

(c) Menus and nutritional adequacy. Menus must—

(1) Meet the nutritional needs of residents in accordance with established national guidelines.;

(2) Be prepared in advance;

(3) Be followed;

(4) Reflect, based on a facility’s reasonable efforts, the religious, cultural, and ethnic needs of the resident population, as well as input received from residents and resident groups;

(5) Be updated periodically;

(6) Be reviewed by the facility’s dietitian or other clinically qualified nutrition professional for nutritional adequacy; an

(7) Nothing in this paragraph should be construed to limit the resident’s right to make personal dietary choices.

(d) Food and drink. Each resident receives and the facility provides—

(1) Food prepared by methods that conserve nutritive value, flavor, and appearance;

(2) Food and drink that is palatable, attractive, and at a safe and appetizing temperature;

(3) Food prepared in a form designed to meet individual needs;

(4) Food that accommodates resident allergies, intolerances, and preferences;

(5) Appealing options of similar nutritive value to residents who choose not to eat food that is initially served or who request a different meal choice; and

(6) Drinks, including water and other liquids consistent with resident needs and preferences and sufficient to maintain resident hydration.

(e) Therapeutic diets. (1) Therapeutic diets must be prescribed by the attending physician.

(2) The attending physician may delegate to a registered or licensed dietitian the task of prescribing a resident’s diet, including a therapeutic diet, to the extent allowed by State law.

(f) Frequency of meals. (1) Each resident must receive and the facility must provide at least three meals daily, at regular times comparable to normal mealtimes in the community or in accordance with resident needs, preferences, requests, and plan of care.

(2) There must be no more than 14 hours between a substantial evening meal and breakfast the following day, except when a nourishing snack is served at bedtime, up to 16 hours may elapse between a substantial evening meal and breakfast the following day if a resident group agrees to this meal span.

(3) Suitable, nourishing alternative meals and snacks must be provided to residents who want to eat at non-traditional times or outside of scheduled meal service times, consistent with the resident plan of care.

(g) Assistive devices. The facility must provide special eating equipment and utensils for residents who need them and appropriate assistance to ensure that the resident can use the assistive devices when consuming meals and snacks.

(h) Paid feeding assistants—(1) State-approved training course. A facility may use a paid feeding assistant, as defined in §488.301 of this chapter, if—

(i) The feeding assistant has successfully completed a State-approved training course that meets the requirements of §483.160 before feeding residents; and

(ii) The use of feeding assistants is consistent with State law.

(2) Supervision. (i) A feeding assistant must work under the supervision of a registered nurse (RN) or licensed practical nurse (LPN).

(ii) In an emergency, a feeding assistant must call a supervisory nurse for help.

(3) Resident selection criteria. (i) A facility must ensure that a feeding assistant provides dining assistance only for residents who have no complicated feeding problems.

(ii) Complicated feeding problems include, but are not limited to, difficulty swallowing, recurrent lung aspirations, and tube or parenteral/IV feedings.

(iii) The facility must base resident selection on the interdisciplinary team’s assessment and the resident’s latest assessment and plan of care. Appropriateness for this program should be reflected in the comprehensive care plan.

(i) Food safety requirements. The facility must—

(1) Procure food from sources approved or considered satisfactory by federal, state, or local authorities;

(i) This may include food items obtained directly from local producers, subject to applicable State and local laws or regulations.

(ii) This provision does not prohibit or prevent facilities from using produce grown in facility gardens, subject to compliance with applicable safe growing and food-handling practices.

(iii) This provision does not preclude residents from consuming foods not procured by the facility.

(2) Store, prepare, distribute, and serve food in accordance with professional standards for food service safety.

(3) Have a policy regarding use and storage of foods brought to residents by family and other visitors to ensure safe and sanitary storage, handling, and consumption, and

(4) Dispose of garbage and refuse properly.

Common areas of cases I see include:  Falls from Beds, Hoyer Lifts and in the Bathroom; Sexual Abuse; Medication Errors and Others.  STOP ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT!

For more information about food services requirements or other questions about elder abuse and neglect contact Nursing Home Neglect Attorney Kenneth LaBore for a free consultation at 612-743-9048 or by email at KLaBore @ MNnursinghomeneglect.com.

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Dental Services Requirements for Nursing Homes

Dental Services Requirments for Nursing Homes

Dental Services Requirments for Nursing Homes

Nursing Home and Skilled Nursing Dental Services Requirements

Pursuant to federal regulations in 42 CFR § 483.55, dental services. The facility must assist residents in obtaining routine and 24-hour emergency dental care.

(a) Skilled nursing facilities. A facility (1) Must provide or obtain from an outside resource, in accordance with §483.70(g), routine and emergency dental services to meet the needs of each resident;

(2) May charge a Medicare resident an additional amount for routine and emergency dental services;

(3) Must have a policy identifying those circumstances when the loss or damage of dentures is the facility’s responsibility and may not charge a resident for the loss or damage of dentures determined in accordance with facility policy to be the facility’s responsibility;

(4) Must if necessary or if requested, assist the resident—

(i) In making appointments; and

(ii) By arranging for transportation to and from the dental services location; and

(5) Must promptly, within 3 days, refer residents with lost or damaged dentures for dental services. If a referral does not occur within 3 days, the facility must provide documentation of what they did to ensure the resident could still eat and drink adequately while awaiting dental services and the extenuating circumstances that led to the delay.

Federal Regulations for Dental Care for Nursing Facilities

(b) Nursing facilities. The facility (1) Must provide or obtain from an outside resource, in accordance with §483.70(g), the following dental services to meet the needs of each resident:

(i) Routine dental services (to the extent covered under the State plan); and

(ii) Emergency dental services;

(2) Must, if necessary or if requested, assist the resident—

(i) In making appointments; and

(ii) By arranging for transportation to and from the dental services locations;

(3) Must promptly, within 3 days, refer residents with lost or damaged dentures for dental services. If a referral does not occur within 3 days, the facility must provide documentation of what they did to ensure the resident could still eat and drink adequately while awaiting dental services and the extenuating circumstances that led to the delay;

(4) Must have a policy identifying those circumstances when the loss or damage of dentures is the facility’s responsibility and may not charge a resident for the loss or damage of dentures determined in accordance with facility policy to be the facility’s responsibility; and

(5) Must assist residents who are eligible and wish to participate to apply for reimbursement of dental services as an incurred medical expense under the State plan.

Common areas of cases I see include:  Falls from Beds, Hoyer Lifts and in the Bathroom; Sexual Abuse; Medication Errors and Others.  STOP ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT!

For more information about skilled nursing and nursing home requirements or other questions about elder abuse and neglect contact Nursing Home Neglect Attorney Kenneth LaBore for a free consultation at 612-743-9048 or by email at KLaBore @ MNnursinghomeneglect.com.

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Laboratory Radiology and Diagnostic Services in Nursing Homes

Nursing Home Federal Regulations for Laboratory Radiology and Diagnostic Services

Nursing Home Federal Regulations for Laboratory Radiology and Diagnostic Services

Federal Regulations for Laboratory Services

Pursuant to federal regulation 42 CFR § 483.50, laboratory, radiology, and other diagnostic services.

(a) Laboratory services. (1) The facility must provide or obtain laboratory services to meet the needs of its residents. The facility is responsible for the quality and timeliness of the services.

(i) If the facility provides its own laboratory services, the services must meet the applicable requirements for laboratories specified in part 493 of this chapter.
(ii) If the facility provides blood bank and transfusion services, it must meet the applicable requirements for laboratories specified in part 493 of this chapter.
(iii) If the laboratory chooses to refer specimens for testing to another laboratory, the referral laboratory must be certified in the appropriate specialties and subspecialties of services in accordance with the requirements of part 493 of this chapter.
(iv) If the facility does not provide laboratory services on site, it must have an agreement to obtain these services from a laboratory that meets the applicable requirements of part 493 of this chapter.

(2) The facility must:

(i) Provide or obtain laboratory services only when ordered by a physician; physician assistant; nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist in accordance with State law, including scope of practice laws.

(ii) Promptly notify the ordering physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or clinical nurse specialist of laboratory results that fall outside of clinical reference ranges in accordance with facility policies and procedures for notification of a practitioner or per the ordering physician’s orders.

(iii) Assist the resident in making transportation arrangements to and from the source of service, if the resident needs asistance; and

(iv) File in the resident’s clinical record laboratory reports that are dated and contain the name and address of the testing laboratory.

In Addition to Laboratory There Must Be Radiology and Other Diagnostic Services Available

(b) Radiology and other diagnostic services. (1) The facility must provide or obtain radiology and other diagnostic services to meet the needs of its residents. The facility is responsible for the quality and timeliness of the services.

(i) If the facility provides its own diagnostic services, the services must meet the applicable conditions of participation for hospitals contained in §482.26 of this subchapter.

(ii) If the facility does not provide its own diagnostic services, it must have an agreement to obtain these services from a provider or supplier that is approved to provide these services under Medicare.

(2) The facility must:

(i) Provide or obtain radiology and other diagnostic services only when ordered by a physician; physician assistant; nurse practitioner or clinical nurse specialist in accordance with State law, including scope of practice laws.

(ii) Promptly notify the ordering physician, physician assistant, nurse practitioner, or clinical nurse specialist of results that fall outside of clinical reference ranges in accordance with facility policies and procedures for notification of a practitioner or per the ordering physician’s orders.

(iii) Assist the resident in making transportation arrangements to and from the source of service, if the resident needs assistance; and

(iv) File in the resident’s clinical record signed and dated reports of x-ray and other diagnostic services.

Common areas of cases I see include:  Falls from Beds, Hoyer Lifts and in the Bathroom; Sexual Abuse; Medication Errors and Others.  STOP ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT!

For more information about nursing home laboratory, diagnostic, x-ray or other requirements or other questions about elder abuse and neglect contact Nursing Home Neglect Attorney Kenneth LaBore for a free consultation at 612-743-9048 or by email at KLaBore @ MNnursinghomeneglect.com.

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Pharmacy Services Requirements in Nursing Homes

Pharmacy Services Requirements for Nursing Homes

Pharmacy Services Requirements for Nursing Homes

Federal Regulations for Pharmacy Services

According to 42 CFR § 483.45, pharmacy services. The facility must provide routine and emergency drugs and biologicals to its residents, or obtain them under an agreement described in §483.70(g). The facility may permit unlicensed personnel to administer drugs if State law permits, but only under the general supervision of a licensed nurse.

(a) Procedures. A facility must provide pharmaceutical services (including procedures that assure the accurate acquiring, receiving, dispensing, and administering of all drugs and biologicals) to meet the needs of each resident.

(b) Service consultation. The facility must employ or obtain the services of a licensed pharmacist who—

(1) Provides consultation on all aspects of the provision of pharmacy services in the facility;
(2) Establishes a system of records of receipt and disposition of all controlled drugs in sufficient detail to enable an accurate reconciliation; and
(3) Determines that drug records are in order and that an account of all controlled drugs is maintained and periodically reconciled.

Pharmacy Services Drug Regimen Review and Other Federal Mandates

(c) Drug regimen review. (1) The drug regimen of each resident must be reviewed at least once a month by a licensed pharmacist.

(2) This review must include a review of the resident’s medical chart.

(3) A psychotropic drug is any drug that affects brain activities associated with mental processes and behavior. These drugs include, but are not limited to, drugs in the following categories:

(i) Anti-psychotic;

(ii) Anti-depressant;

(iii) Anti-anxiety; and

(iv) Hypnotic.

(4) The pharmacist must report any irregularities to the attending physician and the facility’s medical director and director of nursing, and these reports must be acted upon.

(i) Irregularities include, but are not limited to, any drug that meets the criteria set forth in paragraph (d) of this section for an unnecessary drug.

(ii) Any irregularities noted by the pharmacist during this review must be documented on a separate, written report that is sent to the attending physician and the facility’s medical director and director of nursing and lists, at a minimum, the resident’s name, the relevant drug, and the irregularity the pharmacist identified.

(iii) The attending physician must document in the resident’s medical record that the identified irregularity has been reviewed and what, if any, action has been taken to address it. If there is to be no change in the medication, the attending physician should document his or her rationale in the resident’s medical record.

(d) Unnecessary drugs—General. Each resident’s drug regimen must be free from unnecessary drugs. An unnecessary drug is any drug when used—

(1) In excessive dose (including duplicate drug therapy); or

(2) For excessive duration; or

(3) Without adequate monitoring; or

(4) Without adequate indications for its use; or

(5) In the presence of adverse consequences which indicate the dose should be reduced or discontinued; or

(6) Any combinations of the reasons stated in paragraphs (d)(1) through (5) of this section.

(e) Psychotropic drugs. Based on a comprehensive assessment of a resident, the facility must ensure that—

(1) Residents who have not used psychotropic drugs are not given these drugs unless the medication is necessary to treat a specific condition as diagnosed and documented in the clinical record;

(2) Residents who use psychotropic drugs receive gradual dose reductions, and behavioral interventions, unless clinically contraindicated, in an effort to discontinue these drugs;

(3) Residents do not receive psychotropic drugs pursuant to a PRN order unless that medication is necessary to treat a diagnosed specific condition that is documented in the clinical record; and

(4) PRN orders for psychotropic drugs are limited to 14 days. Except as provided in §483.45(e)(5), if the attending physician or prescribing practitioner believes that it is appropriate for the PRN order to be extended beyond 14 days, he or she should document their rationale in the resident’s medical record and indicate the duration for the PRN order.

(5) PRN orders for anti-psychotic drugs are limited to 14 days and cannot be renewed unless the attending physician or prescribing practitioner evaluates the resident for the appropriateness of that medication.

(f) Medication errors. The facility must ensure that its—

(1) Medication error rates are not 5 percent or greater; and

(2) Residents are free of any significant medication errors.

(g) Labeling of drugs and biologicals. Drugs and biologicals used in the facility must be labeled in accordance with currently accepted professional principles, and include the appropriate accessory and cautionary instructions, and the expiration date when applicable.

(h) Storage of drugs and biologicals. (1) In accordance with State and Federal laws, the facility must store all drugs and biologicals in locked compartments under proper temperature controls, and permit only authorized personnel to have access to the keys.

(2) The facility must provide separately locked, permanently affixed compartments for storage of controlled drugs listed in Schedule II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1976 and other drugs subject to abuse, except when the facility uses single unit package drug distribution systems in which the quantity stored is minimal and a missing dose can be readily detected.

Common areas of cases I see include:  Falls from Beds, Hoyer Lifts and in the Bathroom; Sexual Abuse; Medication Errors and Others.  STOP ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT!

For more information about nursing home pharmacy services requirements or other questions about elder abuse and neglect contact Nursing Home Neglect Attorney Kenneth LaBore for a free consultation at 612-743-9048 or by email at KLaBore @ MNnursinghomeneglect.com.

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Behavoiral Health Regulations in Nursing Homes

Behavoiral Health Requirements for Nursing Homes

Behavoiral Health Requirements for Nursing Homes

Nursing Home Federal Behavioral Health Regulations

According to federal regulation 42 CFR § 483.40, behavioral health services. Each resident must receive and the facility must provide the necessary behavioral health care and services to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being, in accordance with the comprehensive assessment and plan of care. Behavioral health encompasses a resident’s whole emotional and mental well-being, which includes, but is not limited to, the prevention and treatment of mental and substance use disorders.

(a) The facility must have sufficient staff who provide direct services to residents with the appropriate competencies and skills sets to provide nursing and related services to assure resident safety and attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being of each resident, as determined by resident assessments and individual plans of care and considering the number, acuity and diagnoses of the facility’s resident population in accordance with §483.70(e). These competencies and skills sets include, but are not limited to, knowledge of and appropriate training and supervision for:

(1) Caring for residents with mental and psychosocial disorders, as well as residents with a history of trauma and/or post-traumatic stress disorder, that have been identified in the facility assessment conducted pursuant to §483.70(e), and
(2) Implementing non-pharmacological interventions.

(b) Based on the comprehensive assessment of a resident, the facility must ensure that—

(1) A resident who displays or is diagnosed with mental disorder or psychosocial adjustment difficulty, or who has a history of trauma and/or post-traumatic stress disorder, receives appropriate treatment and services to correct the assessed problem or to attain the highest practicable mental and psychosocial well-being;

(2) A resident whose assessment did not reveal or who does not have a diagnosis of a mental or psychosocial adjustment difficulty or a documented history of trauma and/or post-traumatic stress disorder does not display a pattern of decreased social interaction and/or increased withdrawn, angry, or depressive behaviors, unless the resident’s clinical condition demonstrates that development of such a pattern was unavoidable; and

(3) A resident who displays or is diagnosed with dementia, receives the appropriate treatment and services to attain or maintain his or her highest practicable physical, mental, and psychosocial well-being.

(c) If rehabilitative services such as but not limited to physical therapy, speech-language pathology, occupational therapy, and rehabilitative services for mental disorders and intellectual disability, are required in the resident’s comprehensive plan of care, the facility must—

(1) Provide the required services, including specialized rehabilitation services as required in §483.65; or

(2) Obtain the required services from an outside resource (in accordance with §483.70(g) of this part) from a Medicare and/or Medicaid provider of specialized rehabilitative services.

(d) The facility must provide medically-related social services to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental and psychosocial well-being of each resident.

Common areas of cases I see include:  Falls from Beds, Hoyer Lifts and in the Bathroom; Sexual Abuse; Medication Errors and Others.  STOP ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT!

For more information about nursing home behavioral health requirements or other questions about elder abuse and neglect contact Nursing Home Neglect Attorney Kenneth LaBore for a free consultation at 612-743-9048 or by email at KLaBore @ MNnursinghomeneglect.com.

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Minnesota Nursing Home Lawyer

MINNESOTA ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT LAWYER - MN Nursing Home Law


Kenneth L. LaBore, Esq, Phone: 612-743-9048 or Toll Free: 1-888-452-6589


This web site is designed for general information only. The information presented at this site should not be construed to be formal legal advice nor the formation of a lawyer/client relationship. Minnesota Nursing Home Lawyer & Attorney of Kenneth LaBore - Attorney at Law, offering services related to elder abuse and neglect, nursing home, assisting living, and other senior or elder care facilities, serving Minneapolis, St Paul, Twin Cities, Bemidji, Rochester, Alexandria, Marshall, Grand Rapids, Anoka, Apple Valley, Arden Hills, Burnsville, Lakeville, St Cloud, Monticello, Duluth, Owatonna, Austin, Bloomington, Mankato and throughout Minnesota.


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